Polish farmers are hardly definable social group. It is a diversified population dominated (in numbers) by “quasi-farmers” – running small farms for own consumption, not selling their products at the market. This category has many negative, economic, social and psychological features. Their political choices are often to support the populist, agricultural parties. The author, referring to the concepts of “blocking development” and “moderating the changes”, describes the political mechanisms of slowing down the reforms applied by the (broadly considered) Polish farmers.
The article presents the context of formation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS), and describes the mechanisms of its functioning in the past years, nowadays and in the future (in the period defined in directive 2009/29/WE). The author focuses on economy phenomena that have impact on effectiveness of emissions trading and tries to answer the question if this system has the ability to adjust to changes that affect the global market. Special emphasis has been laid on the difficult situation of Poland, as its national economy is not very innovative and requires huge investment expenditure, especially because of its energetic system that is based on coal in 93%. The article calls into question the effectiveness of the emissions trading program that has been designed in the times of good global economic situation and which, in fact, in the face of global crisis seems to cause only economic losses to the countries involved therein, without achieving intended ecological objectives.
The question as to whether Warsaw is becoming a Third World city may be regarded as a metaphorical question, which expresses concern about whether the changes being wrought now are moving in the right direction and how the city’s spatial values are adhered to. Shaped as a traditional city, Warsaw lay in ruins in consequence of World War II. Imposed on it was an order of a total character, which, in chosen places, gave rise to forms dominating over the city huge areas which might be described as having a blurring and diluting effect. In the years of transformation, the spatial values leading to the expected balanced development, whose result would be the order of freedom with due regard for the sprit of the place, were not reasserted, and were not incorporated in the public dimension.
The paper presents the spatial and socio-economic transformation of one of Warsaw’s large-scale housing estates – Sluzew nad Dolinka, especially after 1989. In spite of potential threat of physical and social degradation, the area has not converted into a city slum and still offers attractive living conditions for its inhabitants. Continuous and regular actions of the local housing association, city authorities, entrepreneurs and dwellers, as well as propitious circumstances of the Warsaw real estate market, protect the estate from physical and social decline.
The article is devoted to the changing ways of interpretation and description of a region. It shows the interrelations between particular approaches and the connections between changing concepts of a region and different stages of social change. Three main approaches to regional studies are emphasized: the chorological tradition, Regional Science and contemporary social and cultural interpretations of region. Each approach is presented in three perspectives: theoretical, methodological and practical. The changing role and meaning of geographical research in regional studies is analyzed in the concluding comments.
The paper analyzes the sources of economic growth in the regions of Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) using a multi-dimensional approach that takes into account: a) disaggregation of the economic structure; b) the international and national contexts of regional development processes; and c) the main types of regions. The results corroborate the validity of such an approach, showing the interrelationships between the development dynamics of individual regions and the structural changes that are difficult or impossible to identify using an analysis of aggregated values. In particular, the analyses conducted as part of the study help identify the key constituents of metropolization processes taking place in the regions of major city centres, the progress of reindustrialisation processes occurring in transitional regions, and the mechanisms underpinning development of peripheral regions. Based on these differences, the author formulates some general recommendations for policies implemented in these types of regions.
Grzegorz Gorzelak, Bohdan Jałowiecki
For some time local governments and urban politics have been undergoing significant changes related to the change of the traditional welfare state model. These changes have concerned economic, political and management dimensions. While describing these processes numerous authors refer to the notion of New Public Management. This article discusses three theories which have been created to help in interpretation of on-going processes. New Political Culture theory by T.N. Clark stresses value and economic changes and underlines their implications for changes in styles of local politics. Local governance theory developed mostly by Peter John concentrates on shape of local government institutions. Another T.N. Clark’s theory of the “city as an entertainment machine” focuses on evolving mechanisms of local economic development and their impact on policies adopted by urban governments. The paper formulates questions and initial hypothesis about applicability of these concepts to Polish environment.
Olimpia Gogolin, Eugeniusz Szymik
The paper focuses on the transformation of human capital in the Silesia province and the formation process of the creative class. In the first part are described some theoretical assumption of human capital and creative class, and the history and specifics of the most important social groups in Silesia. In the second part the authors cite the main results of their research conducted in 2010–2011. In interviews, entrepreneurs, experts and policy makers recognized the existence of regional professionals and active individuals who operated at the level of enterprises and local communities. This confirms the assumption of the enclave nature of the formation process of the creative class in Silesia.
Monofunctional industrial towns, born during the socialist industrialization and dominated by big industrial plants, faced some important problems during Poland’s economic transformation. Due to changes in the Polish industrial sector, its previous role in the peripherally located towns needs to be redefined. Based on the example of two towns from the Podkarpackie voivodeship, the author analyzes different development concepts of former industry-based local economies, considering the notions of endogenous development and path dependence.
Metropolization is one of the most dynamic processes of contemporary world, changing the existing settlement patterns and creating new relations among large cities. Recently, metropolization concerns also Central and Eastern Europe. The article evaluates the position of CEE cities in the European metropolitan network and describes the process of creation of Polish metropolises and their social and spatial transformation.
The impact of ICT use is an important aspect of studies concerning the transformation of contemporary democracy. The paper presents results of the research project on the development of e-government in Polish self-government institutions, carried out between 2005 and 2012. Websites of all Polish territorial counties as well as all the communes in two voivodships were analyzed within the project. Results of the research indicate that the sophistication of the ICT use grows at both levels of self–government. At the same time significant regional differences in the development of e–government can be observed. Thus, the mode ICT is used by self-government institutions is the additional dimension of digital divide at local level.
The aim of the paper is to describe the material conditions of marginal gentrification in the specific context of the old part of the Nowa Huta district in Kraków. Nowa Huta was planned as an ideal city and is currently becoming an interesting and desirable place to live for new residents. The author focuses on the physical aspects of its gentrification and on the changes in the old part of the district, the local real estate market and the activities of residents-developers.
The article presents intersectoral partnerships forming Local Action Groups, and analyzes the mechanisms of emergence of such partnerships in the Podkarpackie region, particularly factors contributing to their emergence, their initiators and partner-recruitment methods, as well as the relations of partnerships with their social milieu, decision-making inside partnerships and expectations regarding their future. The theoretical framework of the study is rooted in the neoinstitutional theory with its historical, normative, rational-choice and network approaches. Based on them, the authors formulate some hypotheses referring to the innovativeness of the partnerships, the supremacy of local authorities over other partners, the utilitarian character of partnerships and the assumptions concerning their future. The hypotheses are then verified on the basis of the results of quantitative research of Local Action Groups in the Podkarpackie region.
The purpose of the article is to present the evolution of the economic space in the modern metropolis. The paper systematizes the most important changes of that space, in particular those expressed in the emergence of new areas and places of economic activity. To present this evolution, three axes illustrating various types of activity are used, constituting the contemporary pillars of metropolis development: production and technology, control and information, and consumption and culture. The ongoing transformation is shown in the context of centrifugal and centripetal The purpose of the article is to present the evolution of the economic space in the modern metropolis. The paper systematizes the most important changes of that space, in particular those expressed in the emergence of new areas and places of economic activity. To present this evolution, three axes illustrating various types of activity are used, constituting the contemporary pillars of metropolis development: production and technology, control and information, and consumption and culture. The ongoing transformation is shown in the context of centrifugal and centripetal.
The paper describes the effects of the policy of Polish cities concerning climate change. The study uses a questionnaire carried out in all Polish municipalities, and four case studies. The analysis is based on the concept of local knowledge orders. In Polish local government policy, instead of talking of climate change, the officials prefer referring to efficiency in obtaining external funds, savings, or actions meant to raise the quality of life. The term climate change policy is rarely used.
The aim of the paper is to analyze the level of economic development and its dynamics in the cities and towns in the eastern region between 1995 and 2015. The objects of the study were 54 cities and towns of the region. The source of the data for the analysis was the Local Data Bank of the Central Statistical Office. Taxonomic analysis, no-pattern method was used for the study. Ten variables were analyzed during the studied period. They were divided into those referring to budgets of municipalities/communes, national economy entities, and the labor market. As a result of the analysis, it was discovered that 50 cities and towns showed signs of development in the period. It was observed that the diversification of the level of economic development of cities and towns of the eastern region in the spatial layout did not decrease. It was also stated that the accession of Poland to the European Union had an impact on the growth of dynamics indexes of changes for the towns and cities.
The author of the paper describes the process and conceptions of regional development which have been used in the past 40 years of the economic transformation in the Ruhr Region in Germany. The article describes the socio-economic situation and explains the need for transformation in the region. It also presents a wide range of possible solutions for restructured mining regions and discusses the effects of implementation of the development methods used in the Ruhr Region. Finally, it describes the main points of the current strategy of development for the Ruhr Region. The data presented in the paper have been collected and developed thanks to a scholarship at the University of Duisburg-Essen, financed by The Foundation of Polish-German Cooperation.
The paper describes the “chaotic” transformation of Warsaw after 1989, and aims to analyze what Hegel calls “the work of the concept” of (urban) “chaos”, and to embed it in a theoretical framework. The author proposes a typology of urban chaos. The text analyzes the use of the term “chaos” in Poland and singles out particular contexts in Warsaw’s public discourse during the years of post-socialist transformation. Within these contexts, the author reconstructs the distinct social phenomena and power relations hidden beneath the superficial impression of chaos. Empirically, urban chaos is never mere randomness but rather a conglomerate of multiple pockets of order regulated by non-transparent power relations that only appear to be arbitrary. Using Hegelian language, one can argue that chaos is cunning. The key to understanding this cunning is the difference between “chaos” as a term used in public discourse and chaos as a structural condition of power relations between distinct pockets of order.
Due to a dynamic increase of the number of tourists, to demand and supply changes, or – in short – to changes of paradigm, tourism has been recently considered as an important factor of regional development. Countries and regions attempt to encourage tourism development with modern planning. An overview of selected planning documents, mostly regional, leads to the conclusion that in spite of a declarative adoption of the new paradigm on the strategic level, the operational level is still dominated by the old approach, based on a number of myths. These myths should be considered main obstacles in tourism development in Poland.
The paper examines whether EU funds may encourage local and regional development in the Lubelskie voivodship. The authors compare the actual structure of support in 2007?2013 with the necessary conditions of a positive and sustainable result of financial assistance found in the literature. In addition, six case studies were carried out to explore the mechanisms of support at the local level. The analysis shows the dominance of infrastructure spending and support for rural areas. Low expenditure on economic and knowledge capital is accompanied by virtually no support for social capital and administration quality improvement. Funds at the local level are often used purely as social aid. The observed ways of spending the funds may lead to petrifaction of an unfavourable regional economic structure, and do not ensure growth of production factors productivity
This paper is based on data collected during a study (questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews) conducted in selected Polish gminas and focused on selected road corridors. On this basis, social perception of the accessibility of selected services is assessed as well as changes in frequency of road use, quality of life, and road safety. In the case of three road corridors (highways A1 and A4; express road S8), changes in accessibility have occurred as a result of road investments.
University-industry collaboration seems to be crucial to the transfer of knowledge and innovation in a modern world economy in which knowledge, information flows and the level of innovation of countries and regions are the center of attention. The article presents the specifics of university-industry linkages, and the instruments that operate in support of such relationships, the focus being on the French CIFRE (Industrial Agreement for Training through Research) procedure. A description of the functioning of this scheme in France leads on to an analysis of its influence on the development of French regions as regards their levels of innovation and the nature of strength of the linkages between the world of science and academe on the one hand and enterprises on the other.
The aim of the article was to characterise ESPON as a network-based international research programme and the evaluation of capacity of network analysis in studying scientific cooperation. Results of the study show that institutions involved in ESPON projects create a dense, closely interconnected network of cooperation. The network is dominated by a limited number of institutions, which are involved in large share of the projects and have the most expanded cooperation network. Spatial analysis proves, that there is significant lack of institutions from Central-Eastern Europe in the Programme. Network analysis allowed to identify the most efficient methods for improving the presence of Polish institutions in the ESPON Programme.
The paper aims to identify the scope and propose a systematisation of the contemporary redefinition of regional development factors, influenced by global conditions. The research process comprised three stages: (1) a brief review of the theoretical foundations and changes in the understanding of regional development factors; (2) presentation of the findings relating to the directions and impact of contemporary socio-economic megatrends on changes of regional development factors, and (3) the main body of the analysis, which identifies and describes the nature of changes in the perception of regional development factors as a consequence of contemporary global conditions.